Academics

B.Sc (Human Biology)

Department of Biomedical & Forensic Sciences

The Department of Human Biology continues to participate in the teaching of the general biological science courses taken by all biological science students in levels 100 to 300. Our staff teach courses in the Science Education programme. In the biological science curriculum, Level 400 Human Biology courses are offered as a programme option which leads to the award of a B.Sc. (Human Biology) degree. The objective of this programme option is to expose and prepare students in Biomedical Sciences such as Human Anatomy and Physiology, Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Human Genetics, Human Ecology, Clinical Microbiology Parasitology and Virology. The Department also ran M. Phil programme in Parasitology.

 

 

Admission Requirements


Post WASSSCE - SSSCE admissions:

i. Candidates must obtain

a) passes in Core English, Core Mathematics and Integrated Science or Social Studies.

b) passes in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics with grades not lower than C6 in Biology and one other elective science subject.

c) an overall aggregate of 36 or better in three core and three elective subjects.

ii. Candidates who satisfy the requirements in (i) (a) and (b) above but whose overall aggregate in the three elective subjects is more than 15 may enroll in the Remedial Science Programme and pass an Entrance Examination to enhance their chances of admission.

NOTE: Students will be selected into B.Sc. Human Biology at the beginning of level 300.

Courses under Programme :

Level 100

First Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
BIO 101 3 Diversity of Living Organisms.
Diversity of Living Organisms.
Code : BIO 101 Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Students are introduced to the classification of living organisms and the morphological characteristics of the following kingdoms of organisms:  Prokaryotae, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.  The course also examines the life histories and adaptations of some selected members of the various kingdoms e.g. Bacteria and Cyanobacteria; Protozoa with particular emphasis on the sporozoa; Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta; Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; Bryophyta; Lycophyta; Filinophyta; Gymnospermophyta, Angiospermophyta; Platyhelminthes, Nematoda; Arthropoda, Amphibia, Pisces, Reptilia, Aves; and mammalian

PHY 101 2 General Physics I (Theory)
General Physics I (Theory)
Code : PHY 101 Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

Introductory Mechanics, Properties of Matter and heat.

Dimensional analysis: Vectors, Kinematics; Dynamics, Work-Energy, Elasticity; Pressure I fluid; Fluid flow; Viscosity; Surface tension; Kinetic Theory of Gases;  Temperature Scales; First Law of Thermodynamics; Principal Molar Specific Heat Capacities of Gases; Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes; Thermal Conductivity.

PHY 103 1 General Physics I (Practical)
General Physics I (Practical)
Code : PHY 103 Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Experiments on Mechanics and Heat.

CHE 101A 2 Introduction to Physical and Inorganic Chemistry I
Introduction to Physical and Inorganic Chemistry I
Code : CHE 101A Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

Atoms and Atomic Theory, Chemistry Compounds, Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry, Electrons in Atoms, Periodic  Table and Atomic Properties, Chemical Bonding, Empirical Models and Theory.

CHE 103 1 Practical Physical and Inorganic Chemistry
Practical Physical and Inorganic Chemistry
Code : CHE 103 Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Thermochemistry, distribution experiments, determination of molecular properties, solubility and solubility products. Experiments with pH meter, conductivity measurements, qualitative analysis of mixture of two or more salts of metals, volumetric analysis and inorganic preparations

CHE 105A 1 Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry I
Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry I
Code : CHE 105A Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Molecular composition of structure, purification of organic compounds, detection of elements N, S and halogens in organic compounds.  Determination and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae, Structural formulae, structural and geometrical isomerism.  Pictorial treatment of sp, Sp2  sp3 hybridization in single, double and triple bonds., Nomenclature of Alkanes,(including cycloalkanes),   Alkenes, synthesis of Alkanes and Alkynes, chemical  reactions of Alkanes and alkynes.

ASP 2 African Studies
African Studies
Code : ASP Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  
LAR/LSS/LED 2 Inter-faculty course
Inter-faculty course
Code : LAR/LSS/LED Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  
ENG 105A 3 Communicative Skills
Communicative Skills
Code : ENG 105A Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  
ILC 1 Information Literacy Course
Information Literacy Course
Code : ILC Level : Level 100
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  
Second Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
CHE 104 1 Practical Organic Chemistry
Practical Organic Chemistry
Code : CHE 104 Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Techniques of crystallization. Melting and boiling point determination, simple and fractional distillation, steam distillation, refluxing, liquid-liquid extraction, paper, thin-layer and column chromatography.

BIO 102 3 Basic Cytology and Genetics.
Basic Cytology and Genetics.
Code : BIO 102 Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course provides a basic background in the various principles of genetics with a focus on the cytological basis.  It covers cell structure, nuclear divisions and chromosomal aberrations.  Relevant cytological basis of Mendelian Genetics, Cytogenetics and Darwinian Evolution will be illustrated.  The course also covers the DNA structure, the Genetic Code based on the Central Dogma theory and the basis of Microbial genetics.  The concepts of Recombinant DNA, Genetic engineering and Biotechnology will be mentioned.

CHE 101B 1 Introduction to Physical and Inorganic Chemistry II
Introduction to Physical and Inorganic Chemistry II
Code : CHE 101B Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Chemical bonding, Structure and Shape, the gas law, the Ideal gas law and its application.

PHY 102 2 General Physics II (Theory)
General Physics II (Theory)
Code : PHY 102 Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

Introductory Optics, Waves, Electricity and Magnetism

Reflection and Refraction at Plane/curved surfaces; sound waves resonance; static electricity, the Coulomb; Electric Potential Capacitors; Current

PHY 104 1 General Physics II (Practical)
General Physics II (Practical)
Code : PHY 104 Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  

Experiments on Electricity and Optics

CHE 105B 2 Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry II
Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry II
Code : CHE 105B Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

Nomenclature, structure, physical properties, synthesis and chemical properties of Alkynes, Ethers, Alcohols, Eposides, Structure of Benzene including simple treatment of the concept of resonance and aromaticity.  Nomenclature of benzene and its simple derivatives, electrophilic aromatic substitution of benzene, synthesis of simple derivatives of benzene with specific orientation, ortho-para and meta directors

ASP 1 African Studies II
African Studies II
Code : ASP Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 1
Overview  
LAR/LSS/LED 2 Inter-faculty course II
Inter-faculty course II
Code : LAR/LSS/LED Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  
ENG 105B 3 Communicative Skills II
Communicative Skills II
Code : ENG 105B Level : Level 100
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Level 200

Second Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
BIO 207 3 Principles of Ecology
Principles of Ecology
Code : BIO 207 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course examines environmental factors and their effects on the distribution and abundance of organisms.  It discusses the structure and dynamic aspects of populations; population interactions and regulatory mechanisms; concepts of community and the ecosystem; energy flow in ecosystems; trophic levels, and human ecology.  Field studies will include determination of population density, species diversity, evenness and richness and patterns of distribution.  These will be related to environmental conditions

BIO 212 3 Mammalian Anatomy & Physiology
Mammalian Anatomy & Physiology
Code : BIO 212 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course introduces students to the basic anatomy and fundamental mechanisms involved in mammalian physiological functions.  It includes a study of the structure and function of the organ systems involved in digestion, transport, respiration, co-ordination, excretion, reproduction, support and locomotion.  Principles of homeostasis will be emphasized.

BIO 211 3 Plant Physiology
Plant Physiology
Code : BIO 211 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course covers basic plant processes including photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation and bioenergetics.  Other concepts and topics to be discussed include translocation of organic compounds, germination and dormancy, stomatal physiology and plant growth regulators

BIO 209 2 Introductory Microbiology and Parasitology
Introductory Microbiology and Parasitology
Code : BIO 209 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The first part of the course reviews the diversity of micro-organisms including Viruses Bacteria, Fungi and Protozoa.  Their importance in nature and effects on man will be emphasized.  The course discusses the uses of microbes – both beneficial and adverse.  The second part of the course examines heterospecific associations with special emphasis on parasitism.  The life cycles and control measures against some common parasites will be discussed e.g. Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Taenia, and Dracunculus

BIO 210 2 Chordates
Chordates
Code : BIO 210 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course reviews the taxonomy, functional anatomy and biology of the protochordates, cyclostomes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.  It also reviews the origins of chordates and their evolutionary history and provides a survey of embryonic development in the chordates. The course involves extensive practical work in which live and preserved animals will be used for illustrations

BIO 208 3 Population Genetics & Evolution
Population Genetics & Evolution
Code : BIO 208 Level : Level 200
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Students are introduced to Polygenes and the Hardy-Weinberg law. The latter is illustrated by sickle cell anaemia, melanism in moths, drug resistance, insecticide resistance and mimicry in butterflies.  The course also examines the concept of evolution and the distribution of organisms in time and space.  It also reviews the theories of evolution, natural selection and evidence of evolutionary processes: fossils, geographical distribution, comparative anatomy, vestigial structures, molecular biology and embryology.  The origin of Man and the future of Man on earth are also discussed

First Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
BIO 203 3 Phylogeny & Morphology of Invertebrates & Vertebrates
Phylogeny & Morphology of Invertebrates & Vertebrates
Code : BIO 203 Level : Level 200
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course introduces students to the Principles of Systematic Zoology.  The laws of Zoological Nomenclature and the procedure for naming animals are discussed.  The course also provides a survey of invertebrates and vertebrates emphasizing their phylogenetic relationships.  Both preserved and live specimens will be used in practical studies to illustrate the relationships among animals.

BIO 202 3 Cell and Tissue Organisation
Cell and Tissue Organisation
Code : BIO 202 Level : Level 200
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Students are introduced to the cell theory and the generalised structure of plant and animal cells and the functions of the organelles.  A survey of the types, structure and functions of mammalian tissues would be given.  Students will be introduced to basic histological methods – temporary and permanent preparations.  The use of microtomes in cutting sections and staining procedure will be emphasized

BIO 204 3 Morphology and Anatomy of Higher Plants
Morphology and Anatomy of Higher Plants
Code : BIO 204 Level : Level 200
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

A basic course which introduces students to the gross morphological characteristics of gymnosperms and angiosperms; both the vegetative and reproductive plant body are discussed.  Other aspects of the course include pollination mechanisms and agents; fruit and seed formation; growth meristems:  primary and secondary growth; ecological anatomy

BIO 205 2 Introduction to Biodiversity: Systematics and Taxonomy
Introduction to Biodiversity: Systematics and Taxonomy
Code : BIO 205 Level : Level 200
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course is designed to introduce students to the concept and levels of biological diversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.  The threats to global biodiversity and conservation strategies will be discussed.  The course also introduces students to the principles and laws of Systematics. Some methods and practical approaches in Taxonomy will also be emphasised e.g. morphometry, the use of keys and isozyme analysis.

BIO 206 3 Cryptogams: Non-vascular Plants
Cryptogams: Non-vascular Plants
Code : BIO 206 Level : Level 200
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course uses selected examples of algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes to illustrate the wide variation in the general features, structure and life histories of cryptogams.  The evolutionary trends within and between groups are also discussed.

Level 300

First Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
HUB 311 2 Health Policy Analysis and Ethics
Health Policy Analysis and Ethics
Code : HUB 311 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course introduces students to policy analysis and management by examining issues in the health sector.  It fosters an appreciation of the complexity of policy problems and provides the basic tools used in public health policy design, implementation and evaluation.The relations between biomedical ethics and political philosophy will be considered through an exploration of biomedical ethics within liberal society.  Different approaches used by democratic societies to address such topics as euthanasia and the right to die, abortion, behaviour modification, in vitro fertilization, genetic screening and engineering, human experimentation and allocation of scarce medical resources will be considered.

HUB 306 2 Pharmacology I
Pharmacology I
Code : HUB 306 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course introduces the underlying principles of pharmacology and provides a perspective of historical, regulation (Food and Drug Board) and industrial aspects of pharmacological science.  This includes overviews of the physiological, biochemical and anatomical foundations for the interaction of drugs and chemicals with biological systems.  This course is intended to orient students to the general scope of pharmacologic science.

HUB 301 3 Comparative Animal Physiology
Comparative Animal Physiology
Code : HUB 301 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course focuses on the principles and concepts in physiology in relation to adaptations of animals to their environments. It will examine strategies used by different animal’s species to solve similar problems to which they are exposed. Special attention will be given to the physiology of the brain, sensory and effector systems with particular reference to adaptations to changes in environmental temperature, light intensity, ionic and osmotic concentrations and oxygen supply. Also to be discussed are nitrogen excretion, reproductive adaptations, dormancy in animals, and the effects of high altitude and hydrostatic pressure on organisms

HUB 307 2 Behavioral Science
Behavioral Science
Code : HUB 307 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course applies concepts studied under Nervous Physiology to human behaviour.

It provides basic scientific information in human psychology and behaviour. Basic principles in cognition, language development, personality and social development will be emphasized. Learning, thought processes, concrete and abstract thinking, motivation and emotions, intelligent-concept and other models and theories of development will be considered. The Physiology of sleep would be discussed. Etiology of psychiatric disorders and methods of treatment and rehabilitation would be emphasized.

HUB 305 2 Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Code : HUB 305 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course focuses on the principles of epidemiology and their practical applications for investigation, planning, implementation and evaluation of public health problems. Students would be introduced to the foundations and basic concepts in epidemiology such as cause-effect relationships and, measures of disease frequency and association. Epidemiological study designs and issues involved in the analysis of epidemiologic studies such as chance, bias, confounding and causality would also be discussed.

HUB 303 3 Introductory Biochemistry
Introductory Biochemistry
Code : HUB 303 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course explores the role of essential biological molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and vitamins. It provides a systematic and methodical application of general and organic chemistry principles which includes pH and Buffer, qualitative analysis of sugars, analysis of amino acids, protein molecular weights, analysis of lipids, enzyme activity, alcoholic fermentation, oxidation-reduction reactions and deamination of amino acids.

BIO 315 3 Basic Computing in Biology
Basic Computing in Biology
Code : BIO 315 Level : Level 300
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course will expose students to the application of computers and software in biological sciences.  The course will introduce students to Computer hardware and software.  They will be exposed to input and out devices, Windows Operating Systems and others.  They will learn how to manage files in Windows and MS Office Package (Word, Excel, PowerPoint etc).  Students will be exposed to word processing, presentations in PowerPoint and uses of Excel for basic analyses and graphical presentations.  Students will also be introduced to the use of he Internet and search engines for information retrieval on the web.  Statistical packages (SPSS, MINITAB, GENSTAT etc) for data analyses will be introduced to students.  Graphic packages, such as SIGMA STAT/PLOT, will also be introduced.  Uses of PCs in health and medicine, modelling DNA sequencing and analysis; use of laboratory equipment interfaced with computers for data collection will be underscored.

Second Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
HUB 302 3 Human Anatomy I
Human Anatomy I
Code : HUB 302 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course will cover the microscopic and ultra-structural details of human fabric as facilitated by microscopy and tissue processing.  The cellular and extra-cellular components and cyto-architecture as well as cellular products and their effects will be fully explored in tissue and organs.  The anatomical nomenclature as well as organization of basic microscopic structures in the Human body will be studied. Various systems such as; skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and reticuloendothelial / lymphatic will be studied. The course involves extensive practical work to reinforce the harmonious integration of all the systems.

HUB 304 2 Medical Biochemistry
Medical Biochemistry
Code : HUB 304 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course will introduce students to some metabolic pathways in humans, Liver metabolism and protein synthesis (iron and trace elements, handling of ammonia, detoxification reactions), Lipoprotein metabolism and metabolic disorders as a result of inborn errors. Effects of tissue damage on enzyme levels and isoenzymes in Plasma and also Kidney functioning will be discussed.  Evaluation and Handling of clinical Biochemistry data will be underscored.

HUB 308 2 Human Physiology I
Human Physiology I
Code : HUB 308 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course will introduce students to the body functions both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels and the integration of these functions.  The organisation of the organ systems and the functional relationship between the organ systems will be explored.  The course provides strong foundation in general chemical and biological concepts at the cellular level.  It focuses on inter-relationships of human body organ systems.  The function of the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory gastrointestinal and reticuloendothelial / lymphatic systems as an integrative and interrelated multi-systems will be studied.  Extensive practical sessions will be carried out to enhance complete comprehension of the course.

HUB 309 2 Pharmacology II
Pharmacology II
Code : HUB 309 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course is   designed to provide the students with skills and knowledge needed to undertake basic pharmacological investigations.  The course will cover the basic principles of Pharmacology including Drug receptors, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacotherapy.  Specific groups of drugs such as autonomic drugs, cardio vascular-renal drugs, drugs that act on smooth muscles nervous system and endocrine malfunctioning will be emphasized.  Chemotherapeutics; and basic toxicology will be studied.

BIO 399 3 Research Methods in Biology
Research Methods in Biology
Code : BIO 399 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course exposes students to the processes involved in the scientific method of investigation.  There will be exercises in observational skills, making enquiries, formulating hypotheses, experimental designs, biological techniques, data collection, analysis and scientific presentation.  Students will be required to do a literature review on specific topics and present them at seminars.

BIO 312 3 Biostatistics
Biostatistics
Code : BIO 312 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course applies statistical methods to biological information.  It deals with sampling techniques, data presentation, analysis and interpretation.  Types of distribution (e.g. normal binomial, Poisson) are also discussed. Analytical procedures including t-test, chi square, ANOVA, correlation and regression will be used to analyze biological data.  Students will be taken through some basic experimental designs as well (e.g. CR. RCB, and Factorial design).

HUB 312 2 Immunology
Immunology
Code : HUB 312 Level : Level 300
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course describes the general immune system and the processes involved in immunity.  Cellular and humoral immunity and mediators of inflammation will be emphasized. Immunohaematology, organ transplant and hypersensitivity disorders will be covered.  Racial and genetic factors associated with immunity will be discussed.  The course involves extensive practical work in immunochemistry.

Level 400

First Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
HUB 401 3 Reproductive Biology
Reproductive Biology
Code : HUB 401 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Essentially a course in mammalian reproduction designed to meet the needs of students interested in Biology, Medicine and Agriculture.  It will discuss the fundamentals of reproductive Biology and give special attention to human reproduction.  Organ structure will be related to function, and the role of hormones will be addressed.  Issues relating to reproductive health and population control will be discussed.

HUB 413 3 Human Anatomy II
Human Anatomy II
Code : HUB 413 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course is a continuation of Human Anatomy I (HUB 302) with special emphasis on regulatory systems such as; nervous, endocrine, renal and Integuments.  The importance of these systems in the normal functioning of the body will be emphasised. Practical sessions of each of these systems will be carried out for complete comprehension of the course.

HUB 411 3 General Pathology
General Pathology
Code : HUB 411 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course is designed to expose students to the pathological process that occurs in the human body.  It will cover causes and classification of diseases, pathophysiology, inflammation and the inflammatory process, stages of healing, immuno-pathology, circulatory pathological process, neoplasm, malignant neoplasia and pathological effects of organ dysfunctions. Pathologies of Genetic, Nutritional and Infectious diseases will be emphasized.

HUB 415 3 Medical Parasitology
Medical Parasitology
Code : HUB 415 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The biology, physio-chemical, general metabolism and pathology of some important protozoan and helmenthic parasites of humans and domestic animals will be covered. Epidemiological factors and control/preventive strategies as they relate to the life cycles of the parasites would be thoroughly discussed. The biology and management of important vectors of parasites would be emphasized.  Host-parasite interactions that produce candidate molecules for diagnosis will be discussed. Metabolic pathways that provide options for selective toxicity (chemotherapy) will be underscored.

HUB 419 3 Human Physiology II
Human Physiology II
Code : HUB 419 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course is a continuation of Human Physiology I.  It focuses on the energetic, integration and adaptive mechanisms in human body function.  It will cover the physiology of the nervous, renal and integuments with particular reference to their integrative role in the responses of the body to environmental changes.  Practical sessions of each of these systems will be carried to enhance complete understanding of the course.

HUB 407 3 Human Ecology
Human Ecology
Code : HUB 407 Level : Level 400
Semester : First Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

The course examines the effects of humans interaction with the environment.  The overall effects on plants and animals will be highlighted.  A survey of human’s use and misuse of the environment will be illustrated with case studies.  Public health aspects and conservation issues will be discussed

Second Semester
Course Code No. of Credits Course Title
HUB 402 3 Developmental Animal Biology
Developmental Animal Biology
Code : HUB 402 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

As a sequel to Reproductive Biology, this course will involve a study of morphological and structural changes that occur during the course of development of animals. This will cover such processes such as fertilization, growth, cell and organ differentiation, and pattern formation during the development of embryos. The embryology of humans will be emphasized. Also to be discussed are post-natal developmental events, regeneration and repairs, aging and death as well as Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and cloning. Special attention will be given to genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms governing these processes.

HUB 404 2 Forensic Science
Forensic Science
Code : HUB 404 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course will explore the history of forensic science and the use of scientific methods in investigating crime scenes.  Types of evidence, analysis of finger prints, hair, fibres, drugs and blood will be underscored. Principles of toxicology will be reviewed.  Measurements of alcohol, illicit drugs and other toxic substances in biological specimen will be the main focus of this course.  The determination of the contribution of drugs or other chemicals to circumstances of death will be emphasized.

HUB 412 2 Bio-Entrepreneurship
Bio-Entrepreneurship
Code : HUB 412 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

This course prepares students either to initiate their own business or work in an emerging bioenterprise or be employed in a company that provides biological products and health related services.  The course provides students with a view of the entrepreneurial process from idea and opportunity to harvest.  It deals with financial, labour, markets, business strategy and requirements of setting up a new business.

HUB 410 2 Human Nutrition
Human Nutrition
Code : HUB 410 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 2
Overview  

The course will introduce students to the historical overview and perspectives of nutrition, various nutrients, their chemistry and physiological roles in humans. Effects of toxicity and deficiency of the various nutrients will be covered. Nutrient needs through the lifecycle and also at different physical states and physiological conditions will be emphasized. The course will also look at the role of diet in the aetiology of diseases, dietary management of nutrient deficiencies and chronic diseases

HUB 406 3 Medical Microbiology
Medical Microbiology
Code : HUB 406 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

A systematic study of micro-organisms associated with humans and animals of veterinary importance.  Epidemiology of diseases, methods in diagnosis and control measures will be emphasized.  Also to be discussed are host-microbial interactions and factors that contribute to infections and development of immunity.

HUB 418 3 Molecular Biology and Human Genetics
Molecular Biology and Human Genetics
Code : HUB 418 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

This course provides a comprehensive overview of the key concepts in Molecular Biology. An in-depth study of biological processes at the molecular level, including Transcription, RNA processing, Translation, DNA replication and Recombinant Technology. Aspects of molecular genetics will be discussed in relation to human genetic disorders and the human Genome Project.  Special attention will be given to red cell polymorphisms, haemophilia and blood groups.  Genetic counselling, Genetic engineering and related ethical issues will also be discussed

BIO 499 3 Research Project
Research Project
Code : BIO 499 Level : Level 400
Semester : Second Semester No. of Credits : 3
Overview  

Students will be guided to identify a problem in their interest areas, write a project proposal, and actually carry out an independent study to that effect.  A project report will be written and submitted at the end of the study.

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