Degree Type: 

Bachelor of Science


Department of Conservation Biology and Entomology

Modes of Study: 


Entry Requirements: 

Candidates must have credit passes (A1 – C6)/(A – D) at the WASSCE/SSSCE levels, respectively,  in core English, core Mathematics, Integrated Science or Social Studies. In addition, candidates must have obtained credit passes in three elective subjects preferably Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and elective Mathematics with grades not lower than C6/D. GCE O’ Level candidates with grades not lower than credit pass (6) in six (6) subjects including English, Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology or candidates with passes at the GCE Advanced Level in three (3) subjects with grade D or better in the relevant subjects can also apply. Students may be admitted to SBS for a 2-year biological sciences programme before applying to the various departmental options. Such Level 200 students can specialize in our department after successful two years in SBS. We have an enviable track record of turning things around for students whose early years were unfavourable.

Career Opportunities: 

You can be employed as:  Zoologist

 Wildlife Biologist  Wildlife Officers in zoos  Wildlife Rehabilitation Officer  Entomologists and Wildlife Officer with government agencies  Entomology Teacher  Wildlife Protection Campaigner

Programme Structure

First Semester

CBE 402: Ornithology II      
3 Credit(s)

The course begins with a recap of principles of bird conservation; importance of birds to man; basic ornithological techniques such as vocalization; trapping, handling and morphometrics; birds and environmental management shall be linked to monitoring and sampling birds in different ecosystems such as forest and savanna. 

Avian haematology and parasitology shall be introduced. The fieldwork component emphasizes bird ringing/banding and flagging. Modern methods in ornithological research including population and community ecology, methods of analyzing bird survey data using computer software e.g.  Introducing students to R-Statistic; DISTANCE program,

estimates and introduction to multivariate analysis in community ecology indicator species analysis (ISA), and Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) shall be emphasized (Pre-requisite CBE 201).

Level 100

First Semester

BIO 101: Diversity of Living Organisms     
3 Credit(s)

Students are introduced to the classification of living organisms and the morphological characteristics of the following kingdoms of organisms: Prokaryotae, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.  The course also examines the life histories and adaptations of some selected members of the various kingdoms e.g.

Bacteria and Cyanobacteria; Protozoa with particular emphasis on the Sporozoa; Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta; Bryophyta; Lycophyta; Filinophyta; Gymnospermophyta, Angiospermophyta; Platyhelminthes, Nematoda; Arthropoda, Amphibia, Pisces, Reptilia, Aves; and Mammalia.

CHE 101A: Introduction to Basic Physical/Inorganic Chemistry I   
2 Credit(s)

This course is designed to provide a survey of general, inorganic and physical chemistry for students in sciences and allied science majors. Students enrolled in this course will have the opportunity to learn about atoms, atomic structure, chemical compounds,

reactions and stoichiometry, electrons in atoms, Periodic tables and atomic properties. The main objective of this course is to provide students with a fundamental understanding of the basic theories, laws, processes and reactions in chemistry.

It is also aimed at developing an appreciation for the relationship between chemistry and our environment. The fundamental principles of general chemistry will be reinforced during lectures and tutorial sessions. of focal length of lenses and refractive index of glass block;

investigation of Ohm’s law and determination of resistivity of materials.


CHE 103: Introductory Practical (Physical and Inorganic Chemistry) 
1 Credit(s)

This course aims at helping students to develop requisite laboratory skills in general chemistry. Laboratory work includes basic techniques of qualitative and quantitative measurements such as gravimetric, colorimetric, thermometric and selected volumetric methods and analysis.

Practical exercises undertaken in this course include calibration of analytical balance and volumetric glassware (burette and pipette), conductivity and pH measurements, determination of molecular properties and solubility products, quantitative analysis of mixtures of two or more metallic salts and thermochemistry.

CHE 105A: Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry I     
2 Credit(s)

This course introduces students to the molecular composition of structure, purification of organic compounds, detection of elements like C, H, N, S and the halogens in organic compounds.

It will also cover topics such as calculation and determination of empirical and molecular formulae; structural and geometrical isomerism; pictorial treatment of sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization in single,

double and triple bonds in hydrocarbons.

CMS 107: Communicative Skills I
3 Credit(s)

Engaging in academic work at the university is challenging. This course is aimed at equipping fresh students to make the transition from pre-university level to the university level. It assists them in engaging and succeeding in complex academic tasks in speaking, listening, reading and writing. It also provides an introduction to university studies by equipping students with skills that will help them to engage in academic discourse with confidence and fluency.

ILT 101: Information Literacy
1 Credit(s)

The rationale of the course is to equip students with skills that will enable them access and retrieve information in the traditional, hybrid and digital libraries. Students will be able to use ICT efficiently and effectively when they have basic knowledge of computers. The course content include: Types of libraries, library resources and their uses, the role the library plays in the academic community, introduction to computers, the internet.

PHY 103: General Physics I (Practical) 
1 Credit(s)

This is the practical component of PHY101, and is assessed separately. It is intended to make physics as interesting and relevant as possible by investigating some practical applications of physics.

The main topics treated include Hook’s Law, Surface Tension, Simple Harmonic Motion, Density Measurements, Calorimetric and Thermal Expansion.

PHY101: General Physics I (Theory) 
2 Credit(s)

This course is intended to introduce students to some of the fundamental concepts and principles underlying physics so as to develop the scientific problem-solving skills and logical reasoning of students.

The knowledge acquired is for later application in allied programmes like Nursing, Optometry, Computer Science, Science Education and Laboratory Technology.

The main topics treated include Physical Quantities, Vectors, Dynamism, Kinematics, Thermodynamics, Work, Energy and Power.

Second Semester

BIO 102: Basic Cytology and Genetics      
2 Credit(s)

The course provides a basic background in the various principles of Genetics with a focus on the cytological basis.  It covers cell structure, nuclear divisions and chromosomal aberrations.  These would illustrate the relevant cytological basis of Mendelian Genetics, Cytogenetics and Darwinian Evolution. 

The course also covers the DNA structure, the Genetic Code based on the Central Dogma theory and the basis of Microbial genetics.  The concepts of Recombinant DNA, Genetic engineering and Biotechnology would be mentioned..

BIO 103: Data Collection and Analysis 
2 Credit(s)

The course introduces students to various methods of data collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of scientific data. Data collection methods include experiments, field surveys and direct observations. Concepts of statistics, importance and misuse of statistics, sampling and its importance sampling methods (simple, random, systematic and stratified sampling).

Various types of data presentation (bar graph, pie chart, histogram, line graph, polygons and tables) will be discussed. Other areas are scales of measurements (nominal, ordinal interval, ratio), measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median, stem-and-leaf and box plots) and methods of dispersion range, quartiles, inter-quartiles, percentages, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation).

CHE 101C: Introduction to Physical/ Inorganic Chemistry II   
2 Credit(s)

This course gives a further insight into the concepts in physical chemistry. It deals with chemical bonding, various theories of bonding, as well as, structure and shape, the gas laws, the ideal gas law, deviations from ideality and its application. Prerequisite: CHE 101 A.

CHE 105B: Introduction to Basic Organic Chemistry II   
2 Credit(s)

This course is the continuation of CHE 105A. The basic ideas on nomenclature, structure, physical properties, synthesis and chemical properties of the aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes) will be treated.

The course will also include the treatment of the structure of the concept of resonance and aromaticity, nomenclature of benzene and synthesis of simple derivatives of benzene with specific orientation, ortho-, para- and meta-directors. Prerequisite: CHE105.

CHE104 : Introductory Practical Organic Chemistry     
1 Credit(s)

This course is an introductory organic laboratory processes which seeks to enable students acquire basic laboratory skills for the techniques of crystallization, melting and boiling point determination; simple fractional and steam distillation; refluxing liquid-liquid extraction;paper, thin-layer and color chromatography.

CMS 108: Communicative Skills II
3 Credit(s)

This is a follow-up course on the first semester one. It takes students through writing correct sentences, devoid of ambiguity, through the paragraph and its appropriate development to the fully-developed essay. The course also emphasizes the importance and the processes of editing written work.

PHY 102: General Physics II (Theory)     
2 Credit(s)

This is the second part of a two-semester introductory physics course aimed primarily at students majoring in the sciences and allied programmes. The main topics covered are Introductory Optics, Waves, Electricity and Magnetism. A non-calculus approach is used but a working knowledge of algebra is required.

PHY 104: General Physics II (Practical)  
1 Credit(s)

This is the practical component of PHY 102 and is designed to help students gain some hands-on experience with laboratory equipment as they perform experiments to enhance their understanding of some of the theoretical concepts.

Such experiments include the determination.This course is interactive and conversational in tone and aims at helping students to appreciate how to use the tools in logic in arriving at most cogent conclusions given different issues of life.

Level 200

First Semester

BIO 202: Cell and Tissue Organization   
3 Credit(s)

Students are introduced to the cell theory and the generalized structure of plant and animal cells and the functions of the organelles.  A survey of the types, structure and functions of mammalian tissues would be given.  Students will be introduced to basic histological methods – temporary and permanent preparations. 

The use of microtomes in cutting sections and staining procedure will be emphasized. 

BIO 203: Phylogeny & Morphology of Vertebrates and Invertebrates  
3 Credit(s)

The course introduces students to the principles of Systematic Zoology.  The laws of Zoological Nomenclature and the procedure for naming animals are discussed.  The course also provides a survey of invertebrates and vertebrates emphasizing their phylogenetic relationships. 

Both preserved and live specimens will be used in practical studies to illustrate the relationships among animals.

BIO 204: Morphology and Anatomy of Higher Plants   
3 Credit(s)

A basic course which introduces students to the gross morphological characteristics of gymnosperms and angiosperms; both the vegetative and reproductive plant body are discussed.  Other aspects of the course include pollination mechanisms and agents; fruit and seed formation; growth meristems:  primary and secondary growth; ecological anatomy.

BIO 205A: Introduction to Biodiversity, Systematics and Taxonomy  
3 Credit(s)

The course is designed to introduce students to the concept and levels of biological diversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.  The threats to global biodiversity and conservation strategies will be discussed. 

The course also introduces students to the principles and laws of Systematics. Some methods and practical approaches in Taxonomy will also be emphasised e.g. morphometry, the use of keys and isozyme analysis.

BIO 210: Cryptogams   
3 Credit(s)

This course uses selected examples of algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes to illustrate the wide variation in the general features, structure and life histories of cryptogams.  The evolutionary trends within and between groups are also discussed

CBE 201: Ornithology I  
2 Credit(s)

This course presents birds both as a unique group and as representative of vertebrates. The course also emphasizes adaptation, ecology and behavior of birds and introduces students to methods used in modern ornithology. Current views of the systematic relationships among birds and the evolutionary history of birds are considered.

Ecomorphological adaptation to flight in relation to behaviour, migration, navigation and vocalization are discussed. Social and mating systems including territoriality, foraging and flocking, coloniality, mating and reproduction shall be studied. Principles of bird conservation and endangered bird species management shall be discussed.

Second Semester

BIO 201: Basic Soil Science 
2 Credit(s)

This introductory course seeks to provide basic information on soil development emphasizing the soil formation factors and the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The course also emphasizes the special characteristics of clays and humus in relation to plant growth. 

Soil classification is discussed with emphasis on tropical soils. Land use and soil degradation are discussed with focus on conservation and management.

BIO 207:   Principles of Ecology   
3 Credit(s)

The course examines environmental factors and their effects on the distribution and abundance of organisms.  It discusses the structure and dynamic aspects of populations; population interactions and regulatory mechanisms; concepts of community and the ecosystem; energy flow in ecosystems; trophic levels, and human ecology linked to the field.

BIO 208: Population Genetics and Evolution   
3 Credit(s)

Students are introduced to Polygenes and the Hardy-Weinberg law. The latter is illustrated by sickle cell anaemia, melanism in moths, drug resistance, insecticide resistance and mimicry in butterflies.  The course also examines the concept of evolution and the distribution of organisms in time and space. 

It also reviews the theories of evolution, natural selection and evidence of evolutionary processes: fossils, geographical distribution, comparative anatomy, vestigial structures, molecular biology and embryology.  The origin of Man and the future of Man on earth are also discussed.

BIO 209A: Introductory Microbiology and Parasitology    
2 Credit(s)

The first part of the course reviews the diversity of micro-organisms including Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi and Protozoa.  Their importance in nature and effects on man will be emphasized.  The course discusses the uses of microbes – both beneficial and adverse. 

The second part of the course examines heterospecific associations with special emphasis on parasitism.  To include the life cycles and control measures against some common parasites.

BIO 210A: Chordate Biology      
2 Credit(s)

This course reviews the taxonomy, functional anatomy and biology of the protochordates, cyclostomes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.  It also reviews the origins of chordates and their evolutionary history and provides a survey of embryonic development in the chordates.

The course involves extensive practical work in which live and preserved animals will be used for illustrations.

BIO 211: Plant Physiology     
3 Credit(s)

This course covers basic plant processes including photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation and bioenergetics.  Other concepts and topics to be discussed include translocation of organic compounds, germination and dormancy, stomatal physiology and plant growth regulators.

BIO 212:   Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology
3 Credit(s)

This course introduces students to the basic anatomy and fundamental mechanisms involved in mammalian physiological functions.  It includes a study of the structure and function of the organ systems involved in digestion, transport, respiration, co-ordination, excretion, reproduction, support and locomotion. 

Principles of homeostasis will be emphasized.

PHL 205: Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning 
2 Credit(s)

Critical thinking includes, but not limited to, variety of deliberative processes aimed at making wise decisions about what to believe and do, processes that centre on evaluation of arguments, among others.

The best way to use and appreciate critical thinking is to integrate logic, both formal and informal, with a variety of skills and topics useful in making sound decisions about claims, actions, and practices and to make it all palatable by presenting it in real-life contexts.

Level 300

First Semester

BIO 315: Basic Computing for Biologists     
3 Credit(s)

This course will expose students to the application of computers and software in biological sciences. The course will introduce students to Computer hardware and software. They will be exposed to input and output devices, Windows and MS Office Package (Word, Excel, PowerPoint and uses of Excel for basic analyses and graphical presentations.

Students will also be introduced to the use of the Internet and search engines for information retrieval on the web. Statistical packages (SPSS, MINITAB, GENSTAT etc.) for data analyses will be introduced. Uses of PCs interfaced with laboratory equipment will also be discussed.

CBE 301: Selected Invertebrates
3 Credit(s)

The course discusses the ecology and biology (with emphasis on feeding and reproduction) of the Porifera, Coelenterata, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda (excluding Insects) and Echinodermata. The following phenomena are also highlighted: cellular aggregation and division of labour as demonstrated by the Porifera;

polymorphism as demonstrated by the Coelenterata; significance of hydrostatic skeleton; coral formation; locomotory habits; metamerism as providing a degree of plasticity in the annelids; segmental locomotor appendages as shown by selected classes of the Arthropoda, adaptive radiation in the Mollusca; and dermal endoskeleton of the Echinodermata.

CBE 302: Functional Insect Morphology and Anatomy    
3 Credit(s)

The course relates insect structure to function. Students are introduced to Insect Science and its applications. Aspects to be covered include the head capsule, under which the different types of grooves, their origins and functions are discussed. 

Also to be discussed are modifications of the pterothorax, wing structure and coupling, flight activity, structure of abdominal segments and abdominal appendages. Attention is also given to the general structure and function of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems.

CBE 302: Functional Insect Morphology and Anatomy  
3 Credit(s)

The course relates insect structure to function. Students are introduced to Insect Science and its applications. Aspects to be covered include the head capsule, under which the different types of grooves, their origins and functions are discussed. 

Also to be discussed are modifications of the pterothorax, wing structure and coupling, flight activity, structure of abdominal segments and abdominal appendages. Attention is also given to the general structure and function of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory and excretory systems.

CBE 303: Principles of Biodiversity Conservation
3 Credit(s)

  The course introduces students to the concept of biodiversity conservation as the scientific study of nature and status of the Earth’s biodiversity.  Measurement of the threat status of organisms shall be emphasized. Threats to biodiversity in Africa, especially, shall be highlighted.

The course also deals with Ghana’s wildlife conservation policy and regulations, international conservation bodies and wildlife laws, world conservation strategies, traditional knowledge in conservation and conservation conventions which Ghana has ratified.


CBE 308: Insect Systematics 
3 Credit(s)

This course is structured to equip students with techniques and methods in Insect Systematics studies, understanding the relevance and key concepts that underpin the subject. Some important concepts: Taxonomy, Systematics and Phylogeny will be clarified. Students will be introduced to the concept of the species, taxonomic characters, use of dichotomous keys in identification of major families.

A major component will be field trips for insect collection as well as techniques in preparation of specimens for taxonomic studies; preservation; maintenance and value of reference collections. Principles of The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature will be discussed. There will be introduction to current trends: computer-aided taxonomy and molecular systematics as well new taxonomic initiatives.

ENS 301A: Remote Sensing and GIS Technology
3 Credit(s)

The course introduces students to the application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies to natural resource management. Students will be exposed to the use of aircraft and satellite imagery for monitoring soils, vegetation and land use, with the focus on environmental pollution and degradation.

Second Semester

BIO 312: Biostatistics    
3 Credit(s)

This course applies statistical methods to biological information.  It deals with sampling techniques, data presentation, analysis and interpretation.  Types of distribution (e.g. normal binomial, Poisson) are also discussed.  Types of procedures including t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression will be used to analyze biological data. 

Students will be taken through some basic experimental designs as well (e.g. CR, RCB, and factorial design)

BIO 399: Research Methods in Biology
3 Credit(s)

The course exposes students to the processes involved in the scientific method of investigation.  There will be exercises in observational skills, making enquiries, formulating hypotheses, experimental designs biological techniques, data acquisition, analysis and scientific presentation. 

Students will be required to do a literature review on specific topics and present them at seminars. Oganization of wild animals, population studies (life tables, survivorship and age distribution); population dynamics and models and range ecology. Field trips within at least one Protected Area in Ghana shall be organized.

CBE 305: Bees and Beekeeping  
3 Credit(s)

An introduction to honey bee and stingless bee biology, the social organization of the honey bee colony and to modern apiculture and meliponiculture, including the use of bees for pollination. Topics to be discussed include the importance of beekeeping, how to get started, colony management practices, and utilization of hive products.

The practical aspect of this course examines the principles and practices of modern beekeeping and emphasize on students gaining practical field experience in modern management techniques.

CBE 306: Animal Behaviour  
2 Credit(s)

The course introduces students to the various behavioural patterns among animals. Innate behaviour and learning processes shall be emphasized. The roles of the nervous system and the environment shall be discussed, with emphasis on biological rhythms. Using examples from both vertebrate and invertebrate groups,

factors that affect the behaviour of organisms shall be discussed and demonstrated experimentally. Holistic approach to the study of behaviour and physiological conditioning will be stressed.trophic interactions and population ecology. Chemical communication will be discussed. Overall, the course will emphasize on how ecological information and concepts could be applied usefully in agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

CBE 307: Crop Pest Entomology 
3 Credit(s)

Application of management strategies for insect pests of small grains, corn, cotton, rice, sorghum, stored products and sunflower; nature and symptoms of damage, life history and habits of common pests. Laboratory consists of pest and pest damage identification supported by field trips.

The primary purpose of the course is to show students how the discipline of entomology is applied by studying the biology and management of the various insect pests attacking major crops both in the field and in storage including migratory insect pests. The biology and ecology of insect agricultural pests and the science underlying their management.


Level 400

First Semester

CBE 401: Protected Area Management and Wildlife Conservation   
3 Credit(s)

Students are introduced to the concept and purpose of protected areas (PAs) as basic process of protected area management (PAM) approaches (e.g. species and habitat management); sustainability management; principles and practice of PAM;

natural habitat and cultural heritage management; utilization options available within PAs; development of a management plan; implementation of the management plan; Linking the landscape; wildlife conservation principles;conservation and management shall be carried out.

Laboratory work shall emphasize identification techniques and methods used for sampling reptile and amphibian populations.

CBE 403: Insect Physiology and Biochemistry 
3 Credit(s)

Student will learn about the main physiological processes that regulate insect life. The course examines the physiology of the nervous system, sound production, mechanoreceptors and chemical reception in insects.  Synthesis, storage, mobilization, and transport and utilization of fuels in flight and the functioning of the flight muscles will also be studied.

The endocrine organs and hormones, pheromones, growth and metamorphosis, and reproduction are discussed.  The use of such knowledge in the control of insect pests is emphasized.

CBE 404: Pollination Biology    
3 Credit(s)

This course will provide students with a fundamental understanding of animal-mediated pollination. Focus will be on plant and pollinator diversity, biology and natural history as well as pollination syndromes, mutualisms and evolutionary strategies of generalists and specialists.

Foraging economics and learning behaviour, the importance of pollination to both natural and agro ecosystems will be discussed. Threats to pollinators and conservation strategies will also be covered.

CBE 405: Medical and Veterinary Entomology    
3 Credit(s)

This course offers an overview of insects and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance and their role in the transmission of disease to humans and animals. Concepts in parasitology, entomology and molecular biology will be discussed within the context of public health. Methods of control of insect vectors will be examined.


CBE 406: Insect Ecology   
3 Credit(s)

This course is designed to introduce students to ecological processes with regard to insects and the role of insects in ecosystems. The course will discuss the behavioural ecology of insects, trophic interactions and population ecology.

Chemical communication will be discussed. Overall, the course will emphasize on how ecological information and concepts could be applied usefully in agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

CBE 409: Insect Pest and Vector Management  
3 Credit(s)

The course will provide an overview of the philosophy of pest management, including the ecological and economic basis for attainment of pest status. The techniques available to pest managers will be studied, including the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

Students will be introduced to the concept and principles of integrated pest management, involving the utilization of all effective control practices in a programme which is ecologically and economically efficient, with application to selected arthropod pests affecting crops and ornamental plants, humans and livestock.

Second Semester

CBE 407: Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes and Wildlife Monitoring
3 Credit(s)

Students are introduced to the advanced concept of PAM as a network of reserves linked within the landscape and off-reserve systems and management through ecological interactions. Major drivers of wildlife endangerment and threats to terrestrial species extinction; concept of fragmentation and habitat loss and effects (faunal relaxation,

extinction debt, edge effects isolation effects, patch size effects, matrix effects) shall be introduced. Maintaining biodiversity over time and space i.e. Concept of spatial ecology. Landscape connectivity and wildlife corridors; and concept of managing matrix habitats to improve habitat connectivity shall be emphasized.

CBE 408: Wildlife in Captivity
3 Credit(s)

The course discusses Zoological gardens, in-situ-ex situ conservation interface.  Design of animal enclosures; animal collection and feeding; husbandry techniques and health care; nutrition studies; record keeping will be stressed.  Case studies will be used as illustration. 

Also to be discussed are game ranching, domestication and feed formulation.

CBE 410: Aquatic Entomology  
3 Credit(s)

This course assesses the biology and taxonomy of insects and other macro invertebrates most commonly encountered in freshwater environments. The biological component emphasizes habitat, feeding, locomotion, and life history of these aquatic fauna.

Taxonomic aspects will include identification of individual taxa, mostly at family and genus level. Significance of these organisms in aquatic ecology, pollution monitoring, and natural resource management will also be covered.

CBE 411: Herpetology 
3 Credit(s)

The course will survey the biology of amphibians and reptiles from systematic to community ecology. The areas to be covered include systematics, biogeography, population and community ecology and behavior and physiology. Global diversity shall be emphasized.

Given the mounting evidence of global decline of “herptiles”, a general analysis of amphibian and reptileconservation and management shall be carried out. Laboratory work shall emphasize identification techniques and methods used for sampling reptile and amphibian populations.


CBE 499: Research Project  
3 Credit(s)

This will be a research project in any area of Entomology or Conservation Biology and of relevance to the goals of the Department. Projects will be undertaken by all students at Level 400, and will be supervised by a member of academic staff of the Department or a cognate department.

While Students may select research topic offered by staff but students will be encouraged to formulate their own topics. Students will be expected to identify problems in their field of study, write and defend a project proposal aimed at finding a solution(s) to the problem. They will carry out an independent study and submit a written report.